David B. Flora

Associate Professor

Quantitative Methods

Locations / Contact Info:

333 Behavioural Science - BSB
Keele Campus

Email address(es):

dflora at yorku dot ca

Web site(s):

Statistical Consulting Service

Faculty & School/Dept.

Faculty of Health - Department of Psychology


BA - 1996
Kenyon College
Gambier, Ohio, USA

PhD - 2002
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Selected Publications


Flora, D.B. (2018). Statistical methods for the social and behavioural sciences: A model-based approach. London, UK: SAGE.

Journal articles focusing on Quantitative Methods:

Pek, J., & Flora, D.B. (in press). Reporting effect sizes in original psychological research: A discussion and tutorial. Psychological Methods.

Flora, D.B., & Flake, J.K. (2017). The purpose and practice of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in psychological research: Decisions for scale development and validation. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 49, 78-88.

Chalmers, R.P., Counsell, A., & Flora, D.B. (2016). It might not make a big DIF: Improved Differential Test Functioning statistics that account for sampling variability. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 76, 114-140.

Chalmers, R.P., & Flora, D.B. (2015). faoutlier: An R package for detecting influential cases in exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Applied Psychological Measurement, 39, 573-574.

Chalmers, R.P., & Flora, D.B. (2014). Maximum-likelihood estimation of non-compensatory IRT models with the MH-RM algorithm. Applied Psychological Measurement, 38, 339-358.

Edwards, M.C., Flora, D.B., & Thissen, D. (2012). Multi-stage computerized adaptive testing with uniform item exposure. Applied Measurement in Education, 25, 118-141.

Flora, D.B., LaBrish, C., & Chalmers, R.P. (2012). Old and new ideas for data screening and assumption testing for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Frontiers in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, 3 (55).

Mara, C.A., Cribbie, R.A., Flora, D.B., LaBrish, C., Mills, L., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2012). An improved model for evaluating change in randomized pretest, postest, follow-up designs. Methodology, 8, 97-103.

Flora, D.B. (2011). Joint two-part modeling of semicontinuous longitudinal variables: A comparison of approaches. Methodology, 7, 145-156. Please email me for the supplementary material.

Flora, D.B. (2008). Specifying piecewise latent trajectory models for longitudinal data. Structural Equation Modeling, 15, 513-533. Please email me for the supplementary material.

Flora, D.B., Curran, P.J., Hussong, A.M., & Edwards, M.C. (2008). Incorporating measurement non-equivalence in a cross-study latent growth curve analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 15, 676-704. Please email me for the supplementary material.

Flora, D.B., Khoo, S.T., & Chassin, L. (2007). Moderating effects of a risk factor: Modeling longitudinal moderated mediation in the development of adolescent heavy drinking. In T.D. Little, J.A. Bovaird, & N.A. Card (Eds.), Modeling contextual effects in longitudinal studies (pp. 231-254). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Flora, D.B., & Curran, P.J. (2004). An evaluation of alternative methods for confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data. Psychological Methods, 9, 466-491. Please email me for the supplementary material.

Substantive papers in collaboration with students and faculty at York:

Rizeq, J., Flora, D.B., & Toplak, M.E. (2017). Changing relations among cognitive abilities across development: Implications for measurement and research. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 8, 1353-1374.

Racine, N., Pillai Riddell, R.R., Flora, D.B., et al. (2016). Predicting preschool pain-related anticipatory distress: The relative contribution of longitudinal and concurrent factors. Pain, 157, 1918-1932.

Ames, M.E., Wintre, M.G., & Flora, D.B. (2015). Trajectories of BMI and internalizing symptoms: Associations across adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 45, 80-88.

Sorge, G.B., Flora, D.B., et al. (2015). Using factor analytic models to examine the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and health-related outcomes in a representative population survey. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7, 225-235.

Hillgrove-Stuart, J., Pillai Riddell, R.R., Flora, D.B., et al. (2015). Caregiver soothing behaviors after immunization and subsequent infant attachment style: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 36, 681-689.

Horton, R.E., Pillai Riddell, R.R., Flora, D.B., et al. (2015). Distress regulation in infancy: Attachment and temperament in the context of acute pain. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 36, 35-44.

Din Osmun, L., Pillai Riddell, R.R., & Flora, D.B. (2014). Infant pain-related negative affect at 12 months of age: Early infant and caregiver predictors. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39, 23-34.

Fahlman, S.A., Mercer-Lynn, K.B., Flora, D.B., & Eastwood, J.D. (2013). Development and validation of the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale. Assessment, 20, 68-85.

Mercer-Lynn, K.B., Flora, D.B., Fahlman, S.A., & Eastwood, J.D. (2013). The measurement of boredom: Differences between existing self-report scales.  Assessment, 20, 585-596.

Pillai Riddell, R.R., Flora, D.B., et al. (2013). Variability in infant acute pain responding meaningfully obscured by averaging pain responses. Pain, 154, 714-721.

Ahola Kohut, S., Pillai Riddell, R.R., Flora, D.B., & Oster, H. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of the development of infant facial expressions in response to acute pain: Immediate and regulatory expressions. Pain, 153, 2458-2465.

Gibbins, C., Toplak, M.E., Flora, D.B., et al. (2012).  General and specific factors in ADHD: Evidence for a bifactor model of ADHD in adults. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 635-644.

Leung, Y.W., Flora, D.B., et al. (2012). The impact of pre-morbid and post-morbid depression onset on mortality and cardiac morbidity among coronary heart disease patients: A meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74, 786-801.

Normand, S., Flora, D.B., Toplak, M.E., & Tannock, R. (2012). Evidence for a general ADHD factor in a longitudinal general school population study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 555-567.

Toplak, M.E., Sorge, G.B., Flora, D.B., et al. (2012). The hierarchical factor model of ADHD: Invariant across age and national groupings? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 292-303.

Nguyen, H., Rawana, J.S., & Flora, D.B. (2011). Risk and protective predictors of trajectories of depressive symptoms among adolescents from immigrant backgrounds. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 1544-1588.

Pillai Riddell, R.R., Campbell, L., Flora, D.B., et al. (2011). Caregiver sensitivity and infant pain: The relative relationships between infant behaviours and caregiver sensitivity over the first year of life. Pain, 152, 2819-2826.

Nissim, R., Flora, D.B., Cribbie, R.A., Zimmermann, C., Gagliese, L., Rodin, G. (2010). Factor structure of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in individuals with advanced cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 19, 255-263.

Toplak, M.E., Pitch, A., Flora, D.B., et al. (2009). The unity and diversity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in ADHD: Evidence for a general factor with separable dimensions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 1137-1150.


Psychometric Society


Currently available to supervise graduate students: No

Currently taking on work-study students, Graduate Assistants or Volunteers: No

Available to supervise undergraduate thesis projects: No

Current Research

I study quantitative methodology for psychological research, primarily focusing on latent variable models for psychometric data and longitudinal data. Some of the methods I'm interested in include exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (especially with categorical data), structural equation modeling, latent growth curve models, and item response theory. I have applied these methodologies to research on a variety of topics in psychology.